Rules of Scoring a Soccer Game

Rules for soccer scoring seem simple — when the ball crosses the goal line, a point is scored. In some situation, though, getting the ball into the goal does not count as a point. The referee is responsible for making the call as to whether a goal is scored, and he records the goals in a notebook. Most soccer organizations follow scoring rules set by FIFA, the international governing body of soccer.
The entire ball must pass over the goal line and between the goal posts for a point to be scored. The ball also must pass under the crossbar. The winning team is the one that scores the highest number of goals. The match is a draw if an equal number of goals is scored or if no goals are scored.
Any part of the body can be used to score a goal except for the arm or hand. Usually, players use the head or a foot.
Points are not awarded if a player who kicks the ball in is in an offside position, meaning she is closer to her opponent¡¯s goal line than both the second-last opponent and the ball. A point is not awarded if a throw-in passes the goal line, either. On an indirect free kick, a goal is only counted if the ball touches another player before crossing the goal line. A goal is awarded, though, when a direct free kick is shot directly into an opponent¡¯s goal.
Goals do not count if there is interference from an ¡°outside agent.¡± This can include an animal, a spectator or an object. However, the referee is considered a neutral object, so a goal is awarded if it bounces off the ref and goes in.

Dryland Hockey Cardio Exercises

You need a strong motor during the third period of a hockey game when everyone on the ice is gasping for air. That’s where cardio strength and endurance comes into play. During the season, and especially in the offseason, dryland cardio workouts help build up your aerobic endurance capacity and your anaerobic quick-burst ability. Some workouts are traditional, and some are the result of advances in sports science.
The old-school approach to cardio development is well-known by athletes and coaches. You build up your endurance capabilities by running long distances at less than maximum speed. Other dryland exercises, recommended by former NHL conditioning coach and exercise physiologist Peter Twist, who leads on-ice and off-ice training camps for adult and junior hockey players, include indoor spinning classes on a stationary bike and outdoor bike riding on hills. Elliptical machines, treadmills and stair climbers also can get you heart pumping for hockey season. And running up and down the bleacher stairs has never gone out of fashion.
On the STACK website, author and fitness coach Chris Costa recommends a cardio program, developed by Japanese researcher Izumi Tabata, for hockey conditioning. “To achieve optimum endurance, players need to replicate an actual shift on the ice as closely as possible,” Costa advises. The Tabata program comes close. You warm up for two to five minutes on a stationary bike, then blast at full-intensity for 20 seconds, rest for 10 seconds and repeat for eight minutes. A two- to five-minute cool-down completes your workout. Although you could do Tabata running or swimming workouts, Costa says the stationary bike is your best bet, because you can adjust the bike’s resistance to ensure an all-out effort during the 20-second bursts.
Metabolic running workouts are akin to the way hockey is actually played, according to conditioning coach Ben Peterson on the STACK website, and are ideal for both hockey and football players. You can use metabolic training for two to four weeks to establish a broad base of cardio conditioning before the season. You run sprints of varying distances and movements — for example, shuffling motions or skipping or jumping motions — in 30- to 40-second all-out bursts with 20 seconds between reps. Unlike straight-ahead running, metabolic training enables you to work the smaller support muscles in the legs and not just the large muscles. These smaller muscles help hockey and football players improve their ability to plant, cut, cross over and shuffle during competition.
Both Tabata training and metabolic sprints are part of the HIIT revolution in cardio conditioning. As “The New York Times” explains, HIIT training — high-intensity interval training for as little as seven minutes — has been shown in to give you a cardio workout that seems to be just as effective as the traditional long sessions of lower-intensity running, biking or swimming. However, hockey players live by their legs as well as their hearts and lungs. So even if HIIT training makes their hearts as strong as traditional exercise, old-school forms of cardio are still valuable for developing strong legs for hockey.

In the Event of an Emergency Landing: Deadliest Plane Crashes Quiz

Despite more people flying today than 70 years ago, there are 1.33 deaths for every 100,000 hours that commercial planes are in the air. That’s way down from flying during the golden age, when in 1952 there were 5.2 deaths for every 100,000 hours. Let’s look at some of the deadliest flight disasters ever. (Note that some crashes are intentionally left out, including those related to actions such as hijacking, military action and terrorism.)

The History of Basketball for Kids

Basketball is one of the most popular and known sports globally. Yet the invention of this competitive and enjoyable game tells its own tale of how the simple idea of one man could grow into a worldwide phenomenon with the support and love of many others.
Although basketball is now a very popular and complicated game, its beginnings were rather humble. In 1891, James Naismith, a Canadian-American sports teacher invented this simple sport. In New England winters, it was difficult to manage classes since coldness kept students indoors. To confront the lack of activities, James was challenged to create a sport that would stimulate athletic interactions. So, James came up with three key ideas: first, the ball was made soft and big, to prevent injuries; second, to decrease the amount of violent contacts like those in football, passing was the only way to transfer the ball; third, the goal was placed out of reach to encourage exercise. With these in mind, he created thirteen basic rules of basketball and nailed two peach baskets to opposite sides of a gymnasium, around 10 feet off the floor. The first basketball court was born
James Naismith published the thirteen rules of basketball on December 21, 1891. And it was very different. For example, early basketball did not include dribbling and most fouls were tackling or carrying the ball. When first introduced, it was received with little enthusiasm, but interest grew quickly. By 1892, basketball was played by many schools as the ‘New Game’. Many proposed to call the game “Naismith Ball,” but James insisted that since they had a ball and a basket, they should call it basket ball. Basketball was introduced to the YMCA in 1893. In 1906, a backboard was added to the game, along with hoops and nets. The first European match was played in Paris in 1893, while other people brought the sport to China, Japan and India. During WWI, as U.S soldiers fought overseas, the game spread, paving a way for easy acceptance of the sport.
In 1946, owners of ice hockey arenas in the U.S and Canada founded the Basketball Association of America, or NBA. The first game was played at the Maple Leaf Gardens, where the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers. Ossie Schectman made the first basket in NBA history. In 1947, Wataru Misaka became the first Asian to play in the NBA. Later, in 1950, Harold Hunter became the first African American to enter the NBA. The NBA’s popularity grew over time. In 1979, Larry Bird and Magic Johnson joined the league, drawing international attention. In 1984, Michael Jordan, one of the most celebrated player since the league’s creation, signed with the Chicago Bulls. The Dream Team was formed in 1992. In 1995, the Vancouver and Toronto joined the NBA.
Basketball for women began at Smith College in 1892, when Senda Berenson taught the sport to her students, to promote physical activities. She also divided the court into three areas and created the positions of guard, center and forward. Women’s basketball became an official sport in the Olympic Games in 1976, which led to a massive increase in popularity. In 1982, the National Collegiate Athletic Association began sponsoring the sport, an important milestone for women’s basketball. On April 4, 1896, the first intercollegiate game of women’s basketball was played when Stanford and California faced off with teams of nine players. The game ended as a 2 – 1 victory for Stanford. In 1895, Clara Gregory Baer published the first book of women’s basketball rules. Many countries around the world have since established professional women’s basketball leagues, including the United States, Japan, England and Australia.

How to Stop Leg Cramps When Playing Football

Muscle cramps are the result of low sodium levels in your body, and several factors can influence the development. The type of fluids you consume prior to and during exercise is important, and heat can also affect your body’s internal health. Muscle cramps are minor injuries that often subside after a few minutes, but when they occur it is dangerous to use the muscle, as damage to the tissues may result. Severe cramping can also damage the muscles on its own. If you develop cramps during a football game, particularly one played in hot weather, there is an easy course of action to treat the cramp and prevent a recurrence.
Take yourself out of the game and sit down on the sideline. Depending on the location of the cramp — many develop in the legs — you may need assistance to get off the field. Sit down to rest the muscle while the cramp works through itself.
Gently massage the muscle and perform light stretches to help it return to a relaxed state. Do not stretch it to the point of pain, but gradually help limber up the muscle.
Drink small amounts of a drink containing sodium. Although many associate cramping with dehydration — and this could be a contributing factor — you also need to replace the sodium lost from the body. Sports drinks like Gatorade and Powerade can provide your body with this sodium, helping boost sodium levels and preventing future cramps from occurring.
Return to the field once your muscle has returned to normal and you have consumed at least 8 to 12 oz. of a sports drink.

How Long Is the Average Career of an NFL Player?

The career of the average NFL player tends to be short. The National Football League is extremely competitive, so players must compete hard to keep their jobs against new players entering the league every year. The injury rate among NFL players is also extremely high. Careers often end suddenly when players can no longer perform at a high level.
According the the NFL Players Association, the average career of an NFL player is 3.3 years. The players left the NFL for a variety of reasons. These include injury, retirement and being cut by their team.
The shortest careers among NFL players tends to be those who hit and get hit the most during games and practice. Running backs have the shortest average careers of just 2.57 years. Wide receivers have average careers of 2.81 years. The average career for cornerbacks is 2.94 years.
The longest careers among NFL players tends to be those who are hit the least. Kickers and punters have the longest careers, averaging 4.87 years. Quarterbacks are next with an average career of 4.44 years.
It is no coincidence that the highest salaries tend to go to NFL players with the shortest careers. Many players hold out for larger payouts arguing that they have only a short amount of time to make money in the NFL. The exception to this is quarterbacks. They tend to make among the highest salaries while still having longer careers. One reason for this is that quarterbacks require the longest training period of any position in football–many spend the first few years of their careers on the bench.
According to the NFL Players Association, NFL players with college degrees make between 20% and 30% more than players who left school early to enter the NFL. The NFLPA also reports that players with degrees have careers that last about 50% longer than those without degrees. This is because most NFL players need the time in college to mature.

Division 2 College Football Scholarships

As of 2014, Division II football coaches are limited to 36 scholarships. According to the “Standard Times,” a team needs about 75 to 100 players to be competitive at the Division II level, so the supply falls well short of the demand. As a result, Division II coaches only offer partial scholarships to most recruits. Many Division II players supplement athletic scholarships with academic scholarships or other grants.
About 150 National Collegiate Athletic Association schools fielded Division II football teams going into the 2014 season. In general, the talent level is a cut below Division I, but dozens of Division II players have made it to the National Football League, including wide receiver Clyde Gates of the New York Jets and running back Michael Hill of the Green Bay Packers. Division I football teams can have 85 players on full ride scholarships and Division III teams are not allowed to offer athletic scholarships at all.
Doling out segments of the 36 scholarships is a tricky job for coaches. “We evaluate each position so we have balance,” Angelo State football coach Will Wagner told the “Standard Times.” Freshman usually are offered a scholarship equal to 25 to 50 percent of a full ride. Academic scholarships and federal Pell grants, based on financial need, often supplement athletic scholarships. Since athletic scholarships are awarded on an annual basis, a player who doesn’t perform well or gets injured might be out of luck the following season. Full rides at Division II schools usually are reserved for talented players who transfer from Division I programs.
Division II teams seek out talented, strong and fast players just like Division I schools — their standards are just a little less demanding. According to the National Collegiate Sports Association, the typical Division II quarterback recruit is 6 feet 2 inches, runs 40 meters in 4.8 seconds, bench presses 225 pounds and performs 345-pound squats. The average Division I quarterback prospects checks in at 6 feet 3 inches, can run the 40 in 4.6 seconds, bench press 260 and perform 426-pound squats.
“Division II rosters are full of players who took awhile to develop,” coach Wagner told the “Standard Times.” Trying to find those hidden gems who turn into outstanding players is something of an art. Division II coaches often look for versatile kids who played multiple sports in high school and might blossom when they focus just on football. Speed and agility are highly favored. Recruiting kids with good character is essential. Even the size of a recruit’s parents are considered. If the parents are tall, it might indicate a high school kid has more room to develop physically during his college years.

Frank Grant

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New York Yankees


Period: Late Jurassic
Order, Suborder, Family: Saurischia, Sauropodomorpha, Diplodocidae
Location: North America (United States)
Length: 120-140 feet (36-42.5 meters)
Nearly half as long as a football field, Seismosaurus is possibly the largest dinosaur from North America. The single skeleton of this genus was excavated in central New Mexico. It was given its name because of its great size-“earth shaker reptile.”
This giant sauropod reached an estimated length of 120-140 feet. If this is correct, it is the record length for a dinosaur. The skeleton is mostly joined (articulated) and consists of the front half of the tail, the pelvis and sacrum, and the vertebrae in the rib-bearing region. In future excavations, paleontologists hope to recover the front legs, neck, and skull. Some paleontologists feel that the partial Sesimosaurus skeleton simply represents a particularly large specimen of Diplodocus.
Like other diplodocids, Seismosaurus probably had a long slender neck, large bulky body, short front legs, tall rear legs, and long heavy tail. “Stomach stones,” or gastroliths, have been found with the skeleton. It is one of the few articulated (joined) sauropod skeletons that had gastroliths in place when it was excavated.