Paraffin Wax Treatment for Feet

A paraffin wax “dip” or “bath” is a soothing treatment in which the feet are submerged in a warm mixture of paraffin, a petroleum-based wax, and mineral oil. This warming treatment soothes aching joints and improves circulation, and the combination of oil and wax softens rough skin. Massage therapists can use paraffin dips to relieve joint stiffness, while spas and salons often include them before pedicures.
The wax, solid at room temperature, is heated to between 123 and 125 degrees in a foot bath. The feet are then submerged, either one at a time or together. After a few seconds, the feet are removed from the bath and the wax hardens slightly when it hits room temperature air. The feet are dipped three to six more times to form a thick layer of wax, and then allowed to dry for 10 to 15 minutes. The wax is then peeled or rubbed away and the used wax is discarded.
The wax traps heat near the skin, which penetrates to stiff and aching joints. This warmth also improves circulation to the feet. The wax and mineral oil softens rough skin, making it an ideal preliminary to a pedicure or a relaxing treatment for those who work on their feet for long periods. It is also used as a therapeutic treatment for arthritis, muscular pain or joint sprains.
Since the wax in a paraffin treatment needs to be very warm, it is not recommended for children, very elderly people or anyone who is sensitive to high temperatures. It can also be dangerous for those with limited sensation in their feet, including people with diabetes or vascular disease.

How can I meet my favorite football team?

Meeting your favorite football team or player can be as challenging as getting tickets to a major game during the season — it’s possible, but you have to work at it, and sometimes luck plays a role, too. Players are celebrities and are often buffered from the public at large by public relations minions, security and the simple fact they rarely move in the same circles — financial or social — as their fans.
But there are opportunities. The best way to meet the players in a team environment is to monitor the franchise Web site or get on a general mailing list — one that will notify you of upcoming public events.
Stacey James, Vice President of Media Relations for the New England Patriots, said their franchise holds general team events twice a year. One is a golf tournament and the other is a season kick-off gala. “These are events where the fans can purchase tickets to attend,” James said. And for people willing to travel, the team’s pre-season training camp (in July) is also open to the public. ” can watch the practice and the players will sign autographs,” he said.
While these events open the team to the public, they’re often contractual obligations for the player. James said there were other opportunities to meet smaller groups of players, or even an individual player, throughout the rest of the year.
Most NFL teams entertain requests from the public for appearances. James said these requests are weighed and considered and then presented to players who may be interested in attending, or believe the event has a worthwhile purpose. “We don’t dictate what events a player will attend,” James said. “It’s up to each one.” He added that with the number of requests coming through each year it was best to be creative to attract a player’s attention and have them think about the possibility of attending.
The other side of this coin is player requests. Many players have preferences for attendance; maybe they’re trying to help raise money for juvenile diabetes, for youth football programs or for shelter animals. If these requests come through and are brought to the attention of a player, he may be more inclined to attend than he normally would.
It’s these player preferences that highlight one of the tougher sides of meeting a team or a player, said James. “These are people, they have families and lives off the field,” he said.
One example of this life off the field was one player (not named), who spent every Thursday night he could at a local Boys & Girls Club playing chess with the kids. “This was going on for a long time, years I think, before we found out about it,” James said. “And we only found out about it from a reporter who called us and asked if this was something we did. But it wasn’t. It was something the player did on his own because he wanted to.”
Contact with players in a more informal setting is another way to meet them. This can be accomplished through serendipity — like meeting a player when you go pick up your child at the local Boys & Girls Club. For the more ambitious fan it’s possible to follow a player’s activities through the newspaper accounts, fan club contacts, Facebook or other social networks. Some even wait for a tweet on Twitter. “Fans often find players in public places they’re likely to frequent,” James said, adding the Information Age has been good to find celebrities of any stripe.
However, he cautioned the more ardent hounds — simply because a player is in a public place doesn’t mean he wants to be treated as a public figure. “They could be out with their family or friends,” he said. “It’s up to them as to how they handle it.” Some will always sign autographs or talk while others won’t.
The final caveat from fan clubs is to treat the players with respect and they’ll likely show the same. After all, they’re just people like you — only bigger and faster.
For more information about football and other related topics, follow the links on the next page.

Examples of Setting Goals in Sports

Setting goals is a powerful motivator in sports performance. Goals give individual players and sports teams targets and numbers to strive for, and they can also be used as a measuring stick to monitor progress. Goals should be agreed upon between a coach and player and revisited as the competitive season progresses.
Professors from Maine Community College support the SMART goal-setting model. The SMART goal-setting model suggests that goals fit the criteria of specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely. Specific and measurable examples of goal-setting would be a basketball player aiming to score an average of over 10 points or provide an average of over 10 assists per game. The figure set in these goals is specific and it is easy to measure progress by tracking game scores as the season progresses. Achievable and realistic goals should be discussed and agreed upon by both the player and the coach. Past performance and perceived potential should be taken into account when setting these goals. A timely example of goal setting is a soccer player aiming to score 20 goals before the end of the season.
Dr. Mary Walling and Dr. Joan Duda explain the concept of task-oriented and ego-oriented goals in an article in “Performance Edge: The Letter of Performance Psychology.” Task-oriented goals focus on learning and improving on a consistent basis, rather than the end result. An example of a task-oriented goal would be for a soccer player to set the target of mastering five different moves to beat a defender within two months.
Also referred to as performance-oriented goals, an ego-oriented goal will focus on results produced, such as number of goals scored or games won. An example of an ego-oriented goal would be for a baseball player to set the goal of hitting 10 home runs and achieving 30 RBIs in a season.
Individual sports such as tennis and athletics require an individual to motivate themselves with a range of task- and ego-oriented goals. It is also important in team sports that individuals motivate themselves with their own personal goals and incorporate them within team goals. An example of this is a hockey goalkeeper who sets the goal of making 10 saves a game or achieving 10 shutouts in a season.
Sports teams should set a range of goals that are both task- and ego-oriented to help their sports performance. It is beneficial if a sports team does not get caught up purely in wins and losses. External factors such as weather and refereeing can at times impact results, so it is preferable to focus on the overall performance. While including results, it is beneficial to set a range of goals for a season. An example would be an American football team that set goals of winning 10 games in a season. In addition, the team could aim to achieve 20 first downs in a game, concede less than 20 first downs and complete over 50 percent of their passes.

What makes a genius?


How the Census Works
Hibernation: Not a Snooze
Why Did Easter Island’s Civilization Collapse?
The Amazing History of Soda
How Polar Bears Work
How Ice Ages Work
All we know about Zika so far…
How Cerebral Palsy Works
What’s the deal with Stradivarius violins?
Alexander Hamilton: Most Influential American?
View Transcript here.
Topics in this Podcast: Chuck, josh, iq, genius
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How Much Time Is Played During a Football Game?

Football has earned a spot as the dominant sport on the American sporting scene, as Super Bowls broadcasts routinely crack 100 million viewers in the U.S. alone. The average football game is scheduled to last, in terms of broadcast time, three hours. The actual play in the game, though, is dramatically less than that.
Football fans know a regulation league game lasts 60 minutes. The game is divided into four 15-minute quarters. At the end of the first and third quarters, there is a three-minute break. A 15-minute break follows the first half. If a game is tied at the end of regulation, the teams will play one sudden-death period of 15 minutes. The team that scores first wins the game. If neither team scores in the extra period, the game ends as a tie. Postseason games cannot end in ties. If neither team scores in the first overtime period, the game continues until the game ends as a result of a touchdown, field goal or safety.
The average play in a football game can last anywhere between four and 12 seconds. A play starts when the center snaps the ball to the quarterback or another player in the backfield. The play ends when a player is tackled, runs out of bounds or a pass falls incomplete. When the total of all these plays are added up in a regulation professional football game, the total length of the time played is approximately 11 minutes, according to a 2010 report in “The Wall Street Journal.” This total has remained consistent over the many decades pro football has been played. An Indiana University professor recorded 13 minutes and 16 seconds worth of action in a 1912 game, and that the Pro Football Researchers Association recorded an average of 13 minutes and 30 seconds worth of action from games that the organization had studied.
One reason for the drop-off in the amount of time actually played is the rules of the game. In football, a player who is tackled within the field after running with the ball or making a catch ends the play. The clock continues to move. The team must put the ball back into play within 35 seconds after the play clock is started. As time rolls after tackles are made, players are running back to the huddle, getting the play call and then setting up for the next play. The clock stops on an incomplete pass or when a runner goes out of bounds, but as soon as the referee puts the ball back on the line of scrimmage and rules that it has been readied for play, the clock begins to count down again.
While the actual playing time has remained relatively the same over the years, the actual time from the start of the game to the finish has increased dramatically. The use of timeouts by each team, injury time, replay time and commercial time has lengthened games significantly. The average television broadcast will show as many as 100 replays during an individual broadcast. Football broadcasts can last almost four hours when a game goes into overtime or for special broadcasts, including the Super Bowl.

Rules of Scoring a Soccer Game

Rules for soccer scoring seem simple — when the ball crosses the goal line, a point is scored. In some situation, though, getting the ball into the goal does not count as a point. The referee is responsible for making the call as to whether a goal is scored, and he records the goals in a notebook. Most soccer organizations follow scoring rules set by FIFA, the international governing body of soccer.
The entire ball must pass over the goal line and between the goal posts for a point to be scored. The ball also must pass under the crossbar. The winning team is the one that scores the highest number of goals. The match is a draw if an equal number of goals is scored or if no goals are scored.
Any part of the body can be used to score a goal except for the arm or hand. Usually, players use the head or a foot.
Points are not awarded if a player who kicks the ball in is in an offside position, meaning she is closer to her opponent¡¯s goal line than both the second-last opponent and the ball. A point is not awarded if a throw-in passes the goal line, either. On an indirect free kick, a goal is only counted if the ball touches another player before crossing the goal line. A goal is awarded, though, when a direct free kick is shot directly into an opponent¡¯s goal.
Goals do not count if there is interference from an ¡°outside agent.¡± This can include an animal, a spectator or an object. However, the referee is considered a neutral object, so a goal is awarded if it bounces off the ref and goes in.

Dryland Hockey Cardio Exercises

You need a strong motor during the third period of a hockey game when everyone on the ice is gasping for air. That’s where cardio strength and endurance comes into play. During the season, and especially in the offseason, dryland cardio workouts help build up your aerobic endurance capacity and your anaerobic quick-burst ability. Some workouts are traditional, and some are the result of advances in sports science.
The old-school approach to cardio development is well-known by athletes and coaches. You build up your endurance capabilities by running long distances at less than maximum speed. Other dryland exercises, recommended by former NHL conditioning coach and exercise physiologist Peter Twist, who leads on-ice and off-ice training camps for adult and junior hockey players, include indoor spinning classes on a stationary bike and outdoor bike riding on hills. Elliptical machines, treadmills and stair climbers also can get you heart pumping for hockey season. And running up and down the bleacher stairs has never gone out of fashion.
On the STACK website, author and fitness coach Chris Costa recommends a cardio program, developed by Japanese researcher Izumi Tabata, for hockey conditioning. “To achieve optimum endurance, players need to replicate an actual shift on the ice as closely as possible,” Costa advises. The Tabata program comes close. You warm up for two to five minutes on a stationary bike, then blast at full-intensity for 20 seconds, rest for 10 seconds and repeat for eight minutes. A two- to five-minute cool-down completes your workout. Although you could do Tabata running or swimming workouts, Costa says the stationary bike is your best bet, because you can adjust the bike’s resistance to ensure an all-out effort during the 20-second bursts.
Metabolic running workouts are akin to the way hockey is actually played, according to conditioning coach Ben Peterson on the STACK website, and are ideal for both hockey and football players. You can use metabolic training for two to four weeks to establish a broad base of cardio conditioning before the season. You run sprints of varying distances and movements — for example, shuffling motions or skipping or jumping motions — in 30- to 40-second all-out bursts with 20 seconds between reps. Unlike straight-ahead running, metabolic training enables you to work the smaller support muscles in the legs and not just the large muscles. These smaller muscles help hockey and football players improve their ability to plant, cut, cross over and shuffle during competition.
Both Tabata training and metabolic sprints are part of the HIIT revolution in cardio conditioning. As “The New York Times” explains, HIIT training — high-intensity interval training for as little as seven minutes — has been shown in to give you a cardio workout that seems to be just as effective as the traditional long sessions of lower-intensity running, biking or swimming. However, hockey players live by their legs as well as their hearts and lungs. So even if HIIT training makes their hearts as strong as traditional exercise, old-school forms of cardio are still valuable for developing strong legs for hockey.

In the Event of an Emergency Landing: Deadliest Plane Crashes Quiz

Despite more people flying today than 70 years ago, there are 1.33 deaths for every 100,000 hours that commercial planes are in the air. That’s way down from flying during the golden age, when in 1952 there were 5.2 deaths for every 100,000 hours. Let’s look at some of the deadliest flight disasters ever. (Note that some crashes are intentionally left out, including those related to actions such as hijacking, military action and terrorism.)

The History of Basketball for Kids

Basketball is one of the most popular and known sports globally. Yet the invention of this competitive and enjoyable game tells its own tale of how the simple idea of one man could grow into a worldwide phenomenon with the support and love of many others.
Although basketball is now a very popular and complicated game, its beginnings were rather humble. In 1891, James Naismith, a Canadian-American sports teacher invented this simple sport. In New England winters, it was difficult to manage classes since coldness kept students indoors. To confront the lack of activities, James was challenged to create a sport that would stimulate athletic interactions. So, James came up with three key ideas: first, the ball was made soft and big, to prevent injuries; second, to decrease the amount of violent contacts like those in football, passing was the only way to transfer the ball; third, the goal was placed out of reach to encourage exercise. With these in mind, he created thirteen basic rules of basketball and nailed two peach baskets to opposite sides of a gymnasium, around 10 feet off the floor. The first basketball court was born
James Naismith published the thirteen rules of basketball on December 21, 1891. And it was very different. For example, early basketball did not include dribbling and most fouls were tackling or carrying the ball. When first introduced, it was received with little enthusiasm, but interest grew quickly. By 1892, basketball was played by many schools as the ‘New Game’. Many proposed to call the game “Naismith Ball,” but James insisted that since they had a ball and a basket, they should call it basket ball. Basketball was introduced to the YMCA in 1893. In 1906, a backboard was added to the game, along with hoops and nets. The first European match was played in Paris in 1893, while other people brought the sport to China, Japan and India. During WWI, as U.S soldiers fought overseas, the game spread, paving a way for easy acceptance of the sport.
In 1946, owners of ice hockey arenas in the U.S and Canada founded the Basketball Association of America, or NBA. The first game was played at the Maple Leaf Gardens, where the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers. Ossie Schectman made the first basket in NBA history. In 1947, Wataru Misaka became the first Asian to play in the NBA. Later, in 1950, Harold Hunter became the first African American to enter the NBA. The NBA’s popularity grew over time. In 1979, Larry Bird and Magic Johnson joined the league, drawing international attention. In 1984, Michael Jordan, one of the most celebrated player since the league’s creation, signed with the Chicago Bulls. The Dream Team was formed in 1992. In 1995, the Vancouver and Toronto joined the NBA.
Basketball for women began at Smith College in 1892, when Senda Berenson taught the sport to her students, to promote physical activities. She also divided the court into three areas and created the positions of guard, center and forward. Women’s basketball became an official sport in the Olympic Games in 1976, which led to a massive increase in popularity. In 1982, the National Collegiate Athletic Association began sponsoring the sport, an important milestone for women’s basketball. On April 4, 1896, the first intercollegiate game of women’s basketball was played when Stanford and California faced off with teams of nine players. The game ended as a 2 – 1 victory for Stanford. In 1895, Clara Gregory Baer published the first book of women’s basketball rules. Many countries around the world have since established professional women’s basketball leagues, including the United States, Japan, England and Australia.